Best time and doses to associate chemical and biological control of the coffee berry borer in highland region, Brazil




The coffee berry borer (CBB) Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) causes significant damage to the yield and quality of coffee beans. Cultural measures are important however, chemical and biological control must be adopted within an integrated CBB management system in order to prevent its damage mainly in larger areas. This study aimed to evaluate different doses and times of spray of the chemical insecticide metaflumizone and its association to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana as a tool to the management of CBB in Arabica coffee. The study was carried out in a high dense crop of Arabica coffee cultivar Catuaí Vermelho at 700 m altitude in the highlands of Espírito Santo state, Brazil. The experimental design used was randomized blocks with eleven treatments, four replications, and plots of ten plants. Seven evaluations were carried out by sampling the berries in the upper, middle, and two sides of the coffee trees. Metaflumizone at a total dose of 3.5 L ha-1 showed high performance for the control of CBB under field conditions in regions of high altitude. The association of metaflumizone with B. bassiana reduced a mean of 88.5% the infestation level of CBB in the post-harvested coffee beans and it can be used as one of the tools for the Integrated Management of CBB under field conditions. Beauveria bassiana can be associated with metaflumizone to control CBB as a complementary spray in March and at a dose of 2.0 kg ha-1 and should be also used in the Integrated Management of CBB. The monitoring of CBB population must be carried out and the first spraying with chemical or biological insecticide must be started at the recommended control level and in the transit season of CBB when flying adults are exposed.

Key words: Beauveria bassiana; Field conditions; Insect pest management; Metaflumizone; Monitoring.


ABBOTT, W. S. A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. Journal of Economic Entomology, 18(2):235-237, 1925.

AGROFIT. Sistema de agrotóxicos fitossanitários. 2021a. Available in: <> Access in: September, 24, 2021.

AGROFIT. Sistema de agrotóxicos fitossanitários. Boveril WP PL63. 2021b. Available in: <!ap_produto_form_detalhe_cons?p_id_produto_formulado_tecnico=5496&p_tipo_janela=NEW>. Access in: September, 24, 2021.

ALIXANDRE, F. T. et al. Cafeicultura sustentável: Boas práticas agrícolas para o café arábica. Vitória, ES: Incaper, 2020. 48 (Incaper, Documentos, 269).

ARISTIZÁBAL, L. F. Controlling the coffee berry borer through integrated pest management: A practical manual for coffee growers and field workers in Hawaii. Kailua-Kona, Hawaii (USA), 2018.79p.

ARISTIZÁBAL, L. F. et al. Integrated pest management of coffee berry borer in Hawaii and Puerto Rico: Current status and prospects. Insects, 8(4):123, 2017a.

ARISTIZÁBAL, L. F. et al. Flight activity and field infestation relationship for coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) in commercial coffee plantations in Kona and Kau Districts, Hawaii. Journal of Economic Entomology, 110(6):2421-2447, 2017b.

BARRERA, J. F. Coffee pest and their management. In: CAPINERA, J. L. (Ed.). Encyclopedia of entomology. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Springer. p. 961-998, 2008.

BUENO, A. F.; CARVALHO, G. A.; SILVA, D. M. Pesticide selectivity to natural enemies: challenges and constraints for research and field recommendation. Ciência Rural, 47(6):1-10, 2017.

BUSTILLO-PARDEY, A. E. El manejo de cafetales y su relación con el control de la broca del café en Colombia. Cenicafé, 2002. 40p (Boletin Tećnico n° 42).

CHEN, X.-M. et al. Use of Beauveria bassiana in combination with commercial insecticides to manage Phauda flammans (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Phaudidae): Testing for compatibility and synergy. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 24(2):272-278, 2021.

COMPANHIA NACIONAL DE ABASTECIMENTO - CONAB. Acompanhamento da safra brasileira de café – Safra 2020. 2020. Brasília. Available in: <>. Access in: April, 25, 2021.

EMPRESA BRASILEIRA DE PESQUISA AGROPECUÁRIA - EMBRAPA. Sistema Brasileiro de Classificação de Solos. 3ed. Brasília, DF: Embrapa, Brasil. 2013. 356p.

FERNANDES, F. L. et al. Controle massal da broca-do-café com armadilhas de garrafa pet vermelha em cafeeiro. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 49(8):587-59. 2014.

FERREIRA, A. J. et al. Dinâmica populacional da broca-do-café Hypothenemus hampei (Ferr.) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) em Lavras, MG. Anais da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil, 29(2):237-244, 2000.

FORNAZIER, M. J. et al. Integrated pest management in conilon coffee. In: FERRÃO, R. G. et al. (Eds.). Conilon coffee. 1ed. Vitoria, ES: v. 1, p. 493-533. 2019.

GÓNGORA, C. E.; MARÍN, P.; BENAVIDES, P. Claves para el éxito del hongo Beauveria bassiana como controlador biológico de la broca del café. p. 1-8, 2009. (Avance técnico, 348).

GRECO, E. B. et al. Efficacy of Beauveria bassiana applications on coffee berry borer across an elevation gradient in Hawaii. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 28(11):995-1013, 2018.

HARAPRASAD, N. et al. Beauveria bassiana - A potential mycopesticide for the efficient control of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) in India. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 11(2):251-260, 2001.

HOLLINGSWORTH, R. G. et al. Incorporating Beauveria bassiana into an integrated pest management plan for coffee berry borer in Hawaii. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, 4(22):35675, 2020.

INFANTE, F. Pest management strategies against the coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 66:5275-5280, 2018.

JOHNSON, M. A.; MANOUKIS, N. C. Abundance of coffee berry borer in feral, abandoned and managed coffee on Hawaii Island. Journal of Applied Entomology, 144:920-928, 2020.

JOHNSON, M. A. et al. Coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei), a global pest of coffee: Perspectives from historical and recent invasions, and future priorities. US Pacific Basin Agricultural Insects, 11(12):882, 2020.

JUN, S. et al. Fitness and inheritance of metaflumizone resistance in Plutella xylostella. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 139:53-59, 2017.

KAISER, I. S. et al. Baseline response, monitoring, and cross-resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda (lepidoptera: noctuidae) to sodium channel blocker. Journal of Economic Entomology, 114(2):903-913, 2021.

KAWABATA, A. M.; NAKAMOTO, S. T.; CURTISS, R. T. Recommendations for coffee berry borer integrated pest management in Hawai’i 2016. Insect Pests IP-41. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawai’i: Honolulu, HI, USA, p. 24, 2017.

MARIÑO, Y. A. et al. Sun vs. shade affects infestation, total population and sex ratio of the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) in Puerto Rico. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 222:258-266. 2016.

MATIELLO, J. B. et al. Cultura de café no Brasil. Manual de Recomendações. 2ª ed. Varginha, MG: Fundação Procafé, 2020, 716p.

METELLUS, D.; SAMPAIO, M. V.; CELOTO, F. J. 2020. Activity of insecticides on coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae). Bioscience Journal, 36(4):1099-1115, 2020.

PEREIRA, A. E. et al. Correlation between numbers captured and infestation levels of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei: A preliminary basis for an action threshold using baited traps. International Journal of Pest Management, 58(2):183-190, 2012.

PORTILLA, M.; GRODOWITZ, M. Abridged life tables for Cephalonomia stephanoderis and Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) parasitoids of Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) reared on artificial diet. Journal of Insects Science, 18(2):1-7, 2018.

MOTA, L. H. C. et al. Autoinoculation trap for management of Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) with Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) in coffee crops. Biological Control, 111: 32-39, 2017.

NAQVI, S. M.; VAISHNAVI, C. Bioaccumulative potential and toxicity of endosulfan insecticide to non-target animals. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 105(3):347-361, 1993.

NEVES, P. M. O. J.; HIROSE, E. Seleção de isolados de Beauveria bassiana para o controle biológico da broca-do-café, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Neotropical Entomology, 34(3):77-82, 2005.

MONTOYA, S.; CÁRDENAS, M. R. Biología de Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) en frutos de café de diferentes edades. Revista Cenicafé, 45(1):5-13, 1994.

OLIVEIRA, C. M. et al. Coffee berry borer in conilon coffee in the Brazilian Cerrado: An ancient pest in a new environment. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 108(1):101-107, 2018.

R CORE TEAM. R: A language and environment for statistical computing, version 4.0.5. Viena, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Available in: <>. Access in: April, 02, 2021.

REIS, P. R.; SOUZA, J. C. Manejo integrado das pragas do cafeeiro. In: REIS, P. R.; CUNHA, R. L. Café arábica: Do plantio à colheita. Minas Gerais, MG: Epamig, p. 573-688, 2010.

SALGADO, V. L.; HAYASHI, J. H. Metaflumizone is a novel sodium channel blocker insecticide. Veterinary Parasitology, 150(3):182-189. 2007.

SHEN, J. et al. Biochemical mechanisms, cross-resistance and stability of resistance to Metaflumizone in Plutella xylostella. Insects, 11(5):311, 2020.

SOUZA, J. C.; REIS, P. R. Broca-do-café: Histórico, reconhecimento, biologia, prejuízos, monitoramento e controle. 2ed. Minas Gerais, MG: Epamig, 1997. 40p. (Boletim Técnico, 50).

SOUZA, J. C. et al. Controle químico da broca-do-café com cyantraniliprole. Coffee Science, 8(4):404-410, 2013.

SUN, X. X. et al. Resistance risk evaluated by metaflumizone selection and the effects on toxicities over other insecticides in Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 112(5):2354-2361, 2019.

VEGA, F. E. et al. The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): A short review, with recent findings and future research directions. Terrestrial Arthropod Reviews, 2(2):129-147, 2009.

VEGA, F. E.; INFANTE, F.; JOHNSON, A. J. The genus Hypothenemus, with emphasis on H. hampei, the coffee berry borer. In: VEGA, F. E.; HOFSTETTER, R. (Eds.). Bark beetles: Biology and ecology of native and invasive species. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, p. 427-494, 2015.

VERA, J. T. et al. Evaluation of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) as a control of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) emerging from fallen infested berries on the ground. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 21(1):1-14, 2011.

WRAIGHT, S. P. et al. Prevalence of naturally-occurring strains of Beauveria bassiana in populations of coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei on Hawaii Island, with observations on coffee plant-H. hampei-B. bassiana interactions. Journal of Invertebrated Pathology, 156:54-72, 2018.




How to Cite

KROHLING, C. A.; FORNAZIER, M. J.; MENDONÇA, P. L. P. de; GUARÇONI, R. C.; MARTINS, D. dos S.; ALIXANDRE, F. T.; DIAS, R. da S.; RODRIGUES, F. L. M. Best time and doses to associate chemical and biological control of the coffee berry borer in highland region, Brazil. Coffee Science - ISSN 1984-3909, [S. l.], v. 16, p. e161951, 2021. DOI: 10.25186/.v16i.1951. Disponível em: Acesso em: 26 jan. 2023.